“Wines of Eastern North America, From Prohibition to the Present” by Hudson Cattell to be Published by Cornell (NY) University Press in 2014

Nov 24

Hudson Cattell, long-time editor of Wine East and now Eastern editor for Wines & Vines, has published a career-long work of major research through Cornell University Press titled “Wines of Eastern North America, From Prohibition to the Present.” The book is a comprehensive reference work of 390 pages, which include 38 pages of footnotes, seven appendicies, and 28 pages of bibliography. As Cattell points out in his acknowledgments, when he began publishing the Pennsylvania Grape Letter and Winery News in 1976, there was no bibliography on the subject of the Eastern wine industry, so what he includes in this book is a valuable contribution to the collective memory of the Eastern wine industry which suffered a catastrophic disruption during Prohibition and indeed for decades afterwards. Cattell’s book is the sole one of the group devoted exclusively to the Eastern (and Midwestern) wine industry, specifically since Prohibition to the present. The notes, bibliography and index help make this a solid reference work on the subject.

The timing of the publication of this work is significant, since there are now more wineries outside California than in it, and every state in the Union now has its own wineries. Cattell is patient and methodical in documenting the background to the remarkable renaissance of the East, explaining the work of Philip Wagner in Maryland pioneering the planting of French hybrids, and of Dr. Konstantin Frank in New York doing the same with the fine cool-climate European vinifera grapes. Until their work, old heirloom varieties like concord, catawba and niagara had been the backbone of a thriving American wine industry pre-Prohibition. There has been a fierce philosophical divide since Konstantin Frank proved vinifera could survive the winter in cold upstate New York, between the pro-vinifera camp and the pro-hybrid camp over which species was better suited to either fine wine or sustainable crop production. This debate, documented by Cattell, has proved beneficial for the Eastern industry in the wealth of grape species, varieties and styles it offers for every palate.

He also points out the importance of farm winery legislation in creating a political environment in which winemaking was connected with grape growing, and therefore, family farming, a connection that continues to be vital in winning friends in state legislatures as well as with upscale suburbanites escaping the pressures of daily living through winery tourism which also includes scenic vineyards.

The book then proceeds chronologically from the 1970s through the present with subtitles for chapters mentioning major trends (“growing pains”, “winery promotion”, “consolidation”, “Neo-Prohibition and the French Paradox”, “the new century.”) Cattell skillfully divides the histories of the individual states and provinces of the East, summarized in the appendix, from the larger narrative of industry-wide development over the decades in the main text. This is a very useful narrative device to keep one from losing the forest for the trees.

Another valuable aspect of this work as a reference is that three of the seven appendicies are devoted to detailing Eastern wine grapes, from their evolutionary beginnings, to tables showing the original American varieties and the many classes of hybrid varieties (Munson, French, Swenson, New York and those of other research universities) which also detail the crossings. This is invaluable to grape breeders and researchers who want to either trace the origins of Eastern grapes or consider their own crossings.

Cattell was “present at the creation” and personally tape-recorded interviews with nearly all of the founders of the eastern industry in the U.S. and Canada, giving a wealth of primary source material in complete sentences. However, for a book officially published in 2014, I personally think that three chapters on industry development in the 1970s is probably two chapters too many.

In a work of this kind it is important to include maps as Cattell does, but while some state maps delineate official American Viticultural Areas (AVAs), others merely divide states into wine touring zones (such as with the Groundhog Region of Pennsylvania) While the maps don’t clearly distinguish between those which are terroir-based with AVAs and those that are tourism-based, there is an appendix which lists the current, extant AVAs by state.

However, these are minor points and the fact is that this new book is a landmark work with a wealth of primary source interviews and an intimacy of personal acquaintance over a 35 year professional career, that explains how the eastern North American wine industry rose from the ashes of Prohibition to become home to home to 2,782 wineries by 2011. As Cattell states in his conclusion, this process was nothing short of remarkable; “While the eastern wine industry was considered to be in its infancy in 1976, it is now increasingly being recognized as an important wine region of the world.”

Wine Enthusiast Names Eric Trump “Rising Star” of the Year…But Why?

Nov 20

When Dennis Horton claimed the Virginia Wine Governor’s Cup at the awards ceremony in 1993 for the Montdomaine Cellars 1990 cabernet sauvignon, he raised a lot of eyebrows when he referenced baseball star Dizzy Dean of the St. Louis Cardinals who said of his team’s performance in 1949, “It ain’t bragging if you can back it up.”

Except that neither Horton nor his team had made that wine. What alienated a lot of people in the audience at that awards ceremony was that the Cup-winning wine had been produced by winemaker Shep Rouse prior to Horton’s purchase and ownership of Montdomaine Cellars, none of which was mentioned by Horton who implied rather bluntly that he was responsible for the award.

As Yogi Berra, another baseball philosopher would say, “It looks like deja-vu all over again.” When Wine Enthusiast magazine announced its annual industry awards recently, it awarded Eric Trump,  President of Trump Winery and EVP of Development & Acquisitions at the Trump Organization with their “Rising Star” award for 2013.

The Enthusiast mentioned as an apparent justification for the award that Trump Winery had won “Best of Sparkling” at the Jefferson Cup Invitational a year ago, and in this year, it received two gold medals at the San Francisco International Wine Competition and earned 91 points from Wine Enthusiast for its 2007 Brut SP Reserve, which Trump Winery General Manager Kerry H. Woolard says is “Virginia’s highest rated wine in history” (verified by Virginia Wine Marketing Director Annette Boyd).

While Trump owns the wine and as, with Horton, has technical claim to the awards, the fact is that these sparkling wines were fermented, processed and aged by the previous Kluge ownership and none of this was acknowledged by Trump Winery. Although the wines were removed from tirage with dosage added and then bottled by the current Trump team, this minor level of involvement hardly justifies the same bragging rights for the awards as having made them from crush forward under Trump ownership.

The situation is analogous to someone who bought a fine illuminated manuscript at an auction, and were given an award for having done the work themselves.

Ironically, the former Kluge ownership’s regimen for their sparkling wines was that they were bottled and released to be “young, fresh and vibrant,” according to a former Kluge winery worker. With the winery going into bankruptcy and waiting for sale by the bank, the sparkling wine stayed en tirage much longer than normal. In the case of some wines meant for early release and drinking, this would have been a problem, but for high-acid wines on the lees and with CO2 gas to preserve them, the wines actually gained in quality from the extra time aging. Top champagne houses release their regular label wines after a minimum of three years en tirage. The mellowness and complexity that results from extended time with the lees is a major part of champagne’s quality and claim to fame.

I’d like to point out that the Trump Winery has neither done nor claimed anything inappropriate, and I was more interested in why Trump had been chosen for this award than in the winery quite naturally publicizing it. Hadn’t Wine Enthusiast known that Trump Winery wasn’t responsible for producing these wines? Which other hard-working wineries (or owners) were overlooked who could claim more justification for this award, than buying a winery at a knock-down price in bankruptcy, then putting wines made by the prior owners on the market? Several queries to the Wine Enthusiast over a week for the criteria they used choosing Trump for this award were not answered.

The positive publicity from the Wine Enthusiast award is welcome at this time for Trump Winery, which is embroiled in controversy over its plans to build an 18-hole designer golf course on its property despite some of that property being in a conservation easement through the Virginia Outdoors Foundation. A public meeting was held at the winery on October 24th, at which concerns about water usage (county residents rely on wells), increased traffic and decreased quality of life were raised. Eric Trump presided at the meeting where according to Laura Ingles of the C-ville he said he plans to “comply with the easement 100 percent.” Trump and the VOF are still negotiating, says Ingles.

SF Chronicle Recommends Drinking Local Wines for Thanksgiving

Nov 19

Jon Bonne’, columnist for the San Francisco Chronicle, has recommended in his column of Friday 11/15 that Americans drink local for Thanksgiving, based on the nation-wide bounty of fine wines with local character. He mentions a number of West Coast wines, but also points out leading wines in many states across the country. He also keeps the traditional Thanksgiving food in mind, making non-tannic red recommendations and mostly non-chardonnay white recommendations. To read the column, go to http://www.sfgate.com/wine/thirst/article/Celebrating-America-s-cornucopia-of-wine-4985787.php

 

Virginia Wine in My Pocket App Unveils Wine Travel Web Site

Oct 22

Virginia Wine in My Pocket, the app for Virginia wineries, has launched a first-of-its-kind wine travel website – a new “virtual home” for the more than 1.6 million annual visitors to Virginia wine tasting rooms.  The newvawineinmypocket.com includes free tools to help visitors plan, track, and log their wine country visits, designed specifically for visitors to Virginia’s booming wine country, says founder Nancy Bauer.

Launched in October to help celebrate Virginia Wine Month, the new website features secure online storage for visitors’ private tasting notes and trip diaries. Travelers can easily “favorite” and mark wineries, cideries, and meaderies they’ve visited; color-coded icons on Google-style maps show the checked-off wineries, along with those still on the “hit list.” And, as members of the Virginia Wine in My Pocket community, users can share their experiences by leaving a winery review, as well as rate the wine, the service, and the venue. “The website also features descriptions and photos of more than 50 hand-picked, highly-rated restaurants and lodgings–many scenically located among the vineyards–making “winery weekend” travel planning easier than ever,” says Nancy.

Some of My Favorite (Small) Wineries in the Monticello AVA

Oct 09

I’ve heard complaints from some that many of the headlines recently generated on Virginia wine focus on large wineries with a large PR footprint.

Accordingly, for Drink Local Wine’s Regional Wine Week  -  as well as October Virginia Wine Month,  I’m going to focus on small (> 2,000 case production) but original and impressive wineries in Central Virginia, mostly in the Monticello AVA and most of which are only a year or two old.

Wineries of the Appellation Trail

A new wine trail of six wineries close to the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Appalachian Trail is making a clever turn of phrase by calling itself The Appellation Trail. The oldest winery is White Hall Vineyards, a consistently fine producer. Most members are fairly new wineries; Stinson Vineyards, Grace Estate and Moss Vineyards just opened in the last year. Each winery feels miles away from big city life (and even Charlottesville), and visiting two or three on an afternoon makes it feel like  you’ve dived into a treasure buried in the back roads of northern Albemarle county.

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WInemaker/GM Jack Busching of Grace Estate Winery

Starting just south of the wee Wyant’s Store where Garth Rd. meets Rt. 810 which makes a right-angle turn north, is the Mt. Juliet Vineyards and the newly bonded and opened Grace Estate Winery, with the former winemaker of Pollak Vineyards Jake Busching as winemaker and general manager.

In a state where “breathtaking views” have a become a cliché for describing wineries, the grand manor house/tasting room and its expansive view east across Albemarle County to the Southwestern Mountain is truly in a class of its own. Friday evenings this summer and September featured bands, food trucks and corn hole pitches, along with the breathtaking views. Wine highlights include one of the best viogniers of the 2012 vintage to an elderberry-scented 2011 tannat, to a rich but smooth 2010 cabernet sauvignon. Jake is also one of the three winemakers in the “3” collaboration, and the 2012 white “3” is an intriguing blend of viognier, chardonnay and petit manseng.

Netting late season at Stinson Vineyard

Netting late season at Stinson Vineyard

Returning up Rt. 810 to White Hall, turn left, then right following Rt. 810, and the next right is the entrance to Stinson Vineyards, a tiny but impressive operation of a father/daughter team of Scott and Rachel Stinson; Scott is the vineyard manager and Rachel is the winemaker. The house style is French-inspired, dry and elegant.

Owner Scott Stinson (left) with a neighbor at a Tailgate Thursday last summer

Owner Scott Stinson (left) with a neighbor at a Tailgate Thursday last summer

Some examples are the original mourvedre-based rosé (a nod to Provence), lightly oaked chardonnay, and a zesty Loire Valley-like sauvignon blanc. Tannat plays an important role in differentiating the product line, with a varietal label and a delightful “Imperialis” port-style wine that is spicy, rich and full. Also featured is the mature 2009 “La Tour de Afton”, a petit verdot-dominated red Bordeaux blend from the Turk Mountain Vineyard (not open to the public) that is one of the most elegantly fruity and deeply smooth Virginia reds I’ve ever had.

Moving north, the next winery on the trail is White Hall Vineyards, which built a reputation on Loire Valley-like cabernet franc, elegant chardonnay, and impressively Alsatian pinot gris and gewürztraminer, along with being an early Virginia producer of cryo-extraction dessert wine called “Soliterre”. A “Cuvee de Champs” Bordeaux-style blend has lots of finesse, and the petit verdot is finely fruity. Avoiding obvious, heavy oak is a house style which has won many friends as well as fair pricing.

Continuing north on Rt. 810, the next winery on the trail is Mountfair, a tiny winery with a modest tasting room and a specialty for red Bordeaux blends with proprietary names and ratios varying from year to year. Currently on offer are “Intertwined” 2012 (a cabernet sauvignon-dominated blend), “Bubba” 2012 (a near-even split of the cabernets plus petit verdot and merlot), “Commitment” 2011 (50% cabernet franc with lesser amounts of merlot, petit verdot and cabernet sauvignon) and “Jilted” (a Virginia-style blend of 55% Merlot, 20% Petit Verdot, 15% Cabernet Franc, and 10% Cabernet Sauvignon). The understatement of the facility and the simple ridge line logo on the label allows the elegance of the wines to be the real brand for these dedicated specialist.

Moss Vineyards

Moss Vineyards

Returning to Rt. 810/Simmons Gap Road, continue north to the far reaches of northwestern Albemarle County, arriving just before the hamlet of Nortonsville at Moss Vineyards (take a long winding road through the woods to finally emerge into the vineyard, then the winery with an award-winning vista of the Blue Ridge Mountains in Greene County.

Owner Barry Moss is a practicing architect, and the winery, while not loud or brash, shows finesse and elegance of thoughtful design, with windows facing the vista to the north over the vineyard.

Cabernet sauvignon has a justified reputation as a poor performer in Virginia, but the subsoil at Moss Vineyards is decomposed granite, which cabernet performs well on, which shows in the wines. Moss is weighted towards red wines and the cabernet sauvignon is obvious in the two proprietary blends; “vino rosso” and the top-notch (and priced as same) “architettura.” The character of the cabernet here is highly concentrated red cassis with vivid fruit and acidity. White wines include 2012 viognier and a fine rosé. The product line has vertical depth to 2010 in the red blends. This is the winery to bring a picnic lunch and sip a glass while drinking in the vista.

Returning  from the winery to Rt. 810, turn right and continue north past Nortonsville until the next four-way intersection. Instead of following Rt. 810, turn right on Rt. 664/Markwood Rd., then right on Rt. 671/Davis Shop Rd. then left on Rt. 601/Free Union Rd. The final winery will be on the right (total distance from Moss Vineyard @ Rt. 810 of 3.5 miles).

Glass House Winery, in concept and architecture,  is the most unique of the Appellation Trail wineries and among the most unique in the state. Owners Jeff and Michelle Sanders lived in Honduras, and at the winery, have brought some of it to life in a glass-enclosed tropical conservatory including specialty banana trees. Glass is the theme, and the wine bottles all feature film (transparent) labels, as well as glass stoppers.

Barbera at Glass House

Barbera at Glass House

The product line is nicely balanced between white, red, sweet and dry wines. Michelle is a chocolatier and in addition to her truffles which you can buy at the tasting room,  you can taste the cocoa powder in the proprietary chocolate port-style wine “Ancora  Meglio”, one of the best chocolate wines because it contains the real stuff and not just liquid concentrate.

Other highlights include a juicy, rich but lively pinot gris, a juicy, aromatic semi-sweet traminette, the “C-villian”, a vibrant fruit/acid blend of mostly chambourcin, and a passito-style estate-grown barbera, which is dry and higher alcohol than table wine, but resembling amarone, with truffle and earth tones and fine long acidity with a touch of bitterness. The grapes are carefully selected and then dried in a greenhouse to concentrate the sugars which also greatly reduces the volume. The wine has become a hit and the wine club gets first dibs. The 2012 will be released this fall.

Kiwis in the vineyard at Glass House Winery

Kiwis in the vineyard at Glass House Winery

Glass House has tables set up in the arboretum where sometimes live music is performed and guests bring their own food enjoy Glass House wine with the food and music. A balcony extends from the tasting room with fine views of nearby Buck Mountain and a pond below. If you walk the property you’ll find odd-looking vines which turn out to be several varieties of kiwi plants!

That concludes the wineries of the Appellation Trail in northwest Albemarle County, but another winery deserves to be included here (although I can’t include them all), and that’s Lovingston Winery just south of that Nelson County town and still in the Monticello AVA. Also small and humble in features, “it’s all about the wine” here and with the brilliant Riaan Roussow as head winemaker, there’s lots of variety, originality and fine wine; this last week the Lovingston pinotage 2011 won a 90 point rating from Wine Enthusiast magazine! Also, the 2007 Estate Reserve won placement in the Governor’s Case of the top 12 Virginia wines in 2013.

Personally, I’ve always been a fan of the Lovingston seyval blanc for its racy, brilliant Loire Valley-like acidity and grapefruit flavors, as well as its petit manseng for pineapple intensity balancing fruit, acid and residual sugar. I wrote about the 2010 Lovingston cabernet franc  on this site once as the Wine of the Week and one of my favorite red wines of that outstanding vintage. This Saturday 10/12 the winery will have a vertical tasting of its pinotage wines including the recent 90-point winner.

There’s lots going on around the state for October Virginia Wine Month.

Lovingston Pinotage ’11 Awarded 90 pts. by Wine Enthusiast

Oct 08

Lovingston Winery has received 90 points from Wine Enthusiast Magazine for the 2011 vintage of Gilbert’s Vineyard Pinotage.  This is only the second vintage produced from the winery’s estate vineyards and is the highest rating thus far for Lovingston.
This announcement comes just a few days before Lovingston’s annual Pinotage Flight on Saturday, October 12th from 11am-5pm.  Guests have the opportunity to taste the 2011 at no charge along with the 2010 vintage and the newly released 2012.  In addition, Lovingston is unveiling their new wine club at the event, with the first shipment including a special single-barrel bottling of 2011 Pinotage.
Lovingston Winery is a family-run operation along with head winemaker Riaan Rossouw in Nelson County, VA, producing around 1500 cases annually.  Wines range from hybrids such as Seyval Blanc to South African Pinotage and Bordeaux-style reds, including Merlot and Cabernet Franc. Tastings are free at the winery from Wed-Fri (10am-4pm) and Sat-Sun (11am-5pm). Visit www.lovingstonwinery.com for more information or call Stephanie Wright at 434-981-1687.

25th Anniversary of VA Wine Month Celebrated

Oct 01

On Monday Sept. 30th, Gov. Baliles, who launched the first October Virginia Wine Month in 1988,  joined Gov. Bob McDonnell and Sec. Todd Haymore to celebrate the 25th Anniversary of October Virginia Wine Month.  All living former Governors of the Commonwealth of Virginia were invited to attend this special event, which was held at the Library of Virginia and will highlight red and white wine samplings from 25 award winning wineries including library wines dating back to the much earlier vintages.  In addition, an archival exhibit of historical Virginia wine artifacts, including a signed letter from Thomas Jefferson was displayed.  The exhibit, which showcases the past and present of the Virginia Wine industry, also included library wines from earlier vintages.  The event took place at the Library of Virginia in Richmond.

Virginia celebrates Virginia Wine Month each October with an array of unique wine experiences, wine festivals, winery tours, travel packages and more. First celebrated in 1988, Virginia Wine Month has grown to highlight Virginia’s wine production as it has grown to be ranked fifth in the nation.

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